Brighton and Hove City Council Anti-Racism Strategy 2023 – 2028



Appendix 1 – Background to the development of this strategy

Appendix 2 – Anti-racism actions started/taken by the council

Appendix 3 – Terminology

Appendix 4 – Community Advisory Group

Appendix 5 – Council values and the anti-racism strategy

Appendix 6 – Data insight informing strategy development

Appendix 7 – References

Appendix 8 – Publication and contact information


Appendix 1


Background to the development of this strategy

The need to address residents’ lived experiences of racism in Brighton & Hove is well evidenced. Long before the murder of George Floyd, local and national Black Lives Matter (BLM) marches and the COVID pandemic, the Brighton & Hove Black & Minority Ethnic Communities Needs Assessment of 2015[1] evidenced the need to take proactive action to address interpersonal, institutional, and structural racism in our city.

Two independent reviews (in 2013 and 2018) of the council by consultancy Global HPO highlighted essential work to be done within the council to make the environment fairer and more inclusive for Black & Racially Minoritised staff.

The International Migrants in Brighton & Hove needs assessment 2018 provided an overview of the needs of international migrants in the city and recommendations for commissioners, service providers and decision makers to use to improve the lives and outcomes of migratised communities in the city.

Community engagement in recent years has reinforced the need for robust action. The lived experiences of Black & Racially Minoritised residents in our city echo the data that we have collected about disproportionally poorer outcomes for Black & Racially Minoritised residents.

We recognise the powerful work of local community organisations that have been pioneering anti-racism in the city for many years. Over 10,000 marched in Brighton & Hove for Black Lives Matter, with over 1500 people signing a petition to demand Brighton & Hove to be an anti-racist city. We are proud to work alongside and collaborate with local organisations in our aim of becoming an anti-racist council.

Anti-racism work had already begun to address the difference in outcomes and experiences for Black & Racially Minoritised residents. We acknowledge that our anti-racism work has not been enough to positively impact the lived experiences of staff and residents in the city. The events of 2020 accelerated and prioritised anti-racism work in the council, the city, the country and across the globe.


The Significance of Black Lives Matter (BLM)

The murder of George Floyd in May 2020 by Minneapolis police was a tipping point in conversations and the recognition, experiences, and impact of race and racism around the world, and put the Black Lives Matter movement (#BLM)[2] into the global spotlight. The movement focused on the specific impact of Anti-Black racism and violence.

We acknowledge that our pledge to be an anti-racist city followed a severe example of anti-Black racism. We are committed to learning more about the severity of outcomes for the Black diaspora across all protected characteristics. We are taking an evidence, data and community engagement led approach to the areas we are addressing. Where these sources point to disproportionate negative experiences for Black people, we will be addressing those as a priority.

The transformative effect the events of June 2020 had on organisations and individuals showed that instilling anti-racist best practice was not only necessary, but obligatory. It was a catalyst for the development of anti-racist policy that addresses racism in all its forms, including but not limited to anti-Black racism, interpersonal racism, structural racism, institutional racism, Islamophobia, Afrophobia, Xenophobia, and anti-Semitism.  

Black Lives Matter coincides with MeToo, LGBTQIA+ Rights, Trans Rights, Disability & Accessibility Rights, and Migrants Rights movements to highlight the multi-layered discrimination experienced by Black & Racially Minoritised residents and people.

Intersectionality is a key part of anti-racism action because Black & Racially Minoritised people experience discrimination based on their ethnicity and their gender, disability, faith and/or sexuality. As a council, we recognise the impact of intersectionality, and importantly, how intersectional racism manifests, and what actions the council can take strategically. We realise we need to better understand and identify inequity and impact of our policy and practice in the context of intersectional identities for Black & Racially Minoritised people who live, work and visit the city. Valuing intersectionality in the context of various identities, for example, linking our disability and accessibility work with anti-racism, is intentional. This will help us develop an improved understanding of the complex diversity and inequity of lived experiences and different impacts for all racial groups, to help create equity.

We are clear that we have a duty to serve all residents in the city and ensure all residents have equality of opportunity, equal voice, and access to services. As a council, we are just as clear that this does not mean treating everyone the same. Led by qualitative and quantitative evidence we can, do and will continue to prioritise our resources, actions, and efforts to ‘level up’ outcomes for different groups in the city.


All lives cannot matter until Black & Racially Minoritised lives matter equally. This is a reality we recognise given various data sources and community feedback. Under the Public Sector Equality Duty,  Section 149 of the Equality Act 2010, councils (and other public services) are required to show due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination, harassment, victimisation and any other conduct that is prohibited by or under this Act; to advance equality of opportunity between persons who share a relevant protected characteristic and persons who do not share it and foster good relations between persons who share a relevant protected characteristic and persons who do not share it. Ethnicity is one of the nine protected characteristics identified by the Act.



Appendix 2


Anti-racism work we have done or started already

We have been working for some years to change ourselves as an employer, a service provider and civic leader with the purpose of reducing racism, supporting people who experience racism, and alleviating the harmful impact on individuals, organisations, and communities.

Our work includes:

·         Partnership between Housing Services and Voices in Exile to co-design a support pathway for asylum seekers given the right to remain.

·         A third year of ring-fenced funding that provides grants to ‘'BME'’ community and voluntary groups

·         Funding and working in partnership with three community organisations - the Racial Harassment Forum, Possability People, and the Rainbow Hub to launch Third Party Reporting Centres.  The centres ensure that Black & Racially Minoritised residents who may identify intersectionally have access to reporting racism and hate crimes through a third-party community organisation without police or council involvement.

·         Production of a Hate Crime and Hate Incidents Action Plan

·         The city’s largest library in the centre of Brighton – Jubilee library – securing status as a Library of Sanctuary. This means it has been proven to be a welcoming, inclusive and a representative space.

·         Core to the Libraries Service is engaging with diverse communities and supporting Black & Racially Minoritised community groups to deliver cultural events, activities, exhibitions and workshops, e.g. in 2022 the Libraries Service worked with Changing our Narrative – Stories to Reflect – to encourage children to read books from a diverse range of authors, they have worked with.

·         A Business & Intellectual Property Centre (BIPC) is run from Jubilee Library. The BIPC supports entrepreneurs at every stage of their business journey.  The service is not exclusively for Black & Racially Minoritised entrepreneurs however it does set itself targets for engaging with Black & Racially Minoritised residents. In 2021/22 target was 11% and the service achieved 16%. The target was increased to 14% in 2022-23 and it’s expected to be met and then some.

·         Much of the council’s anti-racism work has been pioneered by its Families, Children and Learning Directorate. The directorate’s senior leadership team made an anti-racism commitment specific to their roles and responsibilities. This recognised that the directorate had not done enough to address issues of race and racism in its services when they have been raised in the past and commitment to personal responsibility to use their voice.

·         Appointment of an Anti-Racist Education Adviser in our Families, Children and Learning directorate, who provides consultation and expertise on instilling anti-racist best practice in education.

·         A comprehensive Anti-Racism Education Strategy has been developed to address the need for anti-racist practice in education in Brighton & Hove.

·         An Anti-Racist Project Board for children’s social work was set up at the end of 2019.  The board continues to meet monthly and is chaired by a Black social worker and includes representatives of the council’s Black managers, foster carers and practitioners, as well as the 'BME' Workers Forum, alongside senior managers. The project board has three key work streams: staff support, how we work with families and the voices of children families and carers.

·         An Anti-Racist Lead Practitioner was also appointed on a permanent basis in 2020. This role focuses on supporting social workers to address race and racism with families.

·         One of the main projects that the council’s corporate policy team is involved in is overseeing the increase of participation in local council from Black & Racially Minoritised communities. Funding has been set aside for a civic leadership programme led by an external organisation, which is under procurement, with intention to go live in Spring 2023.

·         The council has already undertaken significant work to tackle the underrepresentation of 'BME' staff within the workforce.  In 2019 the co-createdFair & Inclusive Action Plan was launched to address workforce inequalities identified by an external review.  Progress of this work is monitored by our Corporate Equality Delivery Group and through regular reports to the Policy & Resource Committee. 

·         The council publishes annual workforce equalities reports to provide evidence of fair and inclusive workforce actions and outcomes including ethnicity and disability pay gap reports.  Appendix 2 contains links to the full Fair & Inclusive Action Plan where the next steps of this work are outlined.  

·         In April 2021, the council appointed a HR Diversity Recruitment Consultant to support recruiting managers in addressing disproportionate outcomes for Black & Racially Minoritised applicants in the council’s recruitment process. Recruitment data reported in the annual workforce equalities reports consistently shows that 'BME' applicants are less likely to be shortlisted and hired than White British applicants.  The consultant is leading a range of activities, for example, working with the Adult Education Hub to deliver insight programmes to refugee and migrant groups about working at the council.

·         Developed additional training for recruiting managers to ensure inclusive recruitment practice is used at each stage of the process: planning, shortlisting, and interviewing

·         The council is fully aware of its responsibility to equip all staff with the knowledge, awareness, language, and confidence needed to address racism. To make that happen we deliver mandatory fair and inclusive training for all new staff as part of their induction. There is also a wide range of online training and e-learning in relation to anti-racism.  The council offers a broad programme of training that is not just limited to classroom learning. Other organisational initiatives include team book clubs and Managers Network sessions. 

·         Investing in current 'BME' talent within the workforce; in 2022 the council piloted a Diverse Talent Programme to support career progression. This programme provided mentorship, shadowing opportunities, and coaching to a group of Black & Racially Minoritised staff and case studies are available to demonstrate the many success stories from the programme. The Programme is being re-run in 2023.


Appendix 3



We are aware that there is a lot of information and discussion about terminology regarding racism, anti-racism and people who experience racism, and that language is dynamic and continuously evolving. We believe its use should be nuanced and contextualised, recognising the right and agency to self-identification. We therefore recognise it is not our place as a council to state definitive terms that must be used.  However, we do need to communicate what we understand and how we are using some words in this strategy to support delivery and creation of an anti-racist council. We are committed to continuing this conversation and evolving with language and over time.


Black & Racially Minoritised and Global Majority

This strategy aims to use specific ethnicity descriptions and terminology to speak to specific lived experiences. Where this is not possible, the strategy will use the terms ‘Black & Racially Minoritised,’ and ‘people who experience racism.’ Where these terms are used, they will be referring to people who do not identify as White British. We use ‘Racially Minoritised’ to recognise that people are not minorities by identity, but have been minoritised by racist structures, systems, and societies.

This strategy will also use words such as Community and Diaspora when describing groups of people whose ethnicity has been mentioned. To give an example of how this will be used – people from the Black Diaspora refers to people who identify as Black though they may have differing nationalities; the Sudanese community in Brighton & Hove refers to people whose heritage lies in Sudan and are residents of the city. In this example, a person may identify as both Black and Sudanese, but will be affected by our services in different ways due to these intersecting identities. These descriptive words support us to recognise the nuances and diversity within our Black & Racially Minoritised communities in Brighton & Hove.

The council is also aware that the term ‘Global Majority’ is increasing in usage throughout the city. The term refers to people from the Black diaspora, Asian communities, people of Dual-Heritage, Indigenous communities, and those in the global South. These groups currently represent approximately 80% of the world’s population. Global majority is a collective term that shifts the conversation away from proximity to whiteness and onto the human race as a global population. We recognise the appropriateness of this terminology and are committed to direct engagement about its increased usage within the council and beyond.

We recognise that the use of ‘BAME’ (Black and Asian Minority Ethnic), ‘'BME'’, and ‘Black & Minority Ethnic’ can be particularly problematic. These terms are still used widely in local and national data, so when referring to statistical evidence to support our actions, these terms may be cited within inverted commas to recognise that they are not our preferred terms.

Terms and terminology have been identified based on dialogue at meetings of the Community Advisory Group and with Black & Racially Minoritised-led organisations in the city as well as current national narratives. We understand that umbrella terms can dilute people’s lived experiences, can be dismissive, and over-simplify complex realities. We understand people are subjected to racism for their skin tone, accent, culture, ethnicity, nationality, faith, marital status, sexuality (and more) in direct, indirect, and intersecting ways. Racism may be experienced on an interpersonal, institutional, or structural level. Specific terminology will be utilised to reflect the different communities in the city and the different ways people identify themselves.

Discussions will continue to take place throughout the lifespan of this strategy to ensure language is kept up to date. Any terminology used in this strategy will be reviewed on a regular basis and updated as necessary.



“There is no such thing as Race. None. There is just the Human Race scientifically, anthropologically” (Toni Morrison[3])


“Race, the idea that the human species is divided into distinct groups on the basis of inherited physical and behavioural differences. Genetic studies in the late 20th century refuted the existence of biogenetically distinct races, and scholars now argue that “races” are cultural interventions reflecting specific attitudes and beliefs that were imposed on different populations in the wake of western European conquests beginning in the 15th century. (Britannica)[4]


Our understanding, in line with academically and scientifically proven research, including views of community educators, activists, and members, is that ‘Race’ is a social construct that was created and has been perpetuated for centuries by actions of colonisation, the invention of eugenics, through marginalisation, and the systemic and intentional enslavement, oppression and looting of various Black, non-White, and Indigenous cultures, who are the global majority.  


As the social concept of ‘Race’ persists systemically to divide and marginalise, so must our work to continuously become anti-racist, fight anti-Blackness, colourism, and other intersecting marginalising outcomes for Black and Racially Minoritised people to ensure equity, embracing of diversity and continuous inclusion by design in how we think, act and work.




This definition of racism, agreed by us, as the council with the Community Advisory Group in 2020 is:

Racism is when a person is treated worse, excluded, disadvantaged, harassed, bullied, humiliated, victimised, segregated or degraded because of their race or ethnicity.

At an organisational level, it can also be the collective failure to provide an inclusive and professional working environment to people because of their race or ethnicity*. This is sometimes described as ‘institutional racism’, based on the definition recommended by Sir William Macpherson in the 1999 Lawrence report (UK). 

*NOTE: Race or ethnicity includes people’s colour, and nationality (including citizenship) ethnic or national origins.

The definition of a racist incident is: "any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person."         

How racism manifests:

Racism can happen anywhere, and in any context. It can be an action by an individual or a culture: ‘normal’ behaviour that underpins everyday practices. Like discrimination more broadly, racism is linked to power and is reflected in a society’s organisations and cultures. It influences people’s thinking, attitudes, prejudices, and actions. It is justified and normalised by institutions and culture. Attitudes and actions at all levels of society can be racist and decisions and policies made by individuals, organisations and institutions can be racist.

Racism can be a one-off action, random action, or subtle everyday behaviours that can add up to negatively affect a person (known as micro-aggressions and micro-incivilities). Racism can also be the deliberate or accidental outcome of an organisation’s policy or practice. It can be seen in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, and thoughtlessness. Someone may discriminate against a person or group of people without realising it or meaning to, but this is still racism. The perception of the victim or any other person is central to how a racist incident or complaint is defined regardless of the intention of the perpetrator. Intention or ignorance is not an excuse.

Examples of racist behaviour in practice it can mean the following, based on race/ethnicity:

·         Using negative language or making ‘jokes’ about people’s race/ethnicity.

·         Colour blindness’ (ignoring race and its impacts).

·         Assuming superiority of ‘people like me’ over ‘people like them’.

·         Stereotyping (generalising or making assumptions about all people from a specific ethnic group, culture or religion are the same).

·         Making people into ‘other’ (perceiving them as different from what is ‘normal’).

·         Behaviours that signal that someone doesn’t belong or isn’t welcome.

·         Directly insulting or hurting people.

·         Not addressing allegations of racism appropriately or treating complainants as ‘trouble-makers’.

·         In a workplace: blocking progression, acting up or learning opportunities.

·         Avoiding or isolating people or not inviting them to social or networking events.

·         Subjecting people to greater scrutiny or monitoring and changing tone of voice, style of engagement, communication, and behaviour due to perceived difference of racial, national, or ethnic heritage, accent or assumed capability based in stereotypical views of someone’s racial, national or ethnic heritage.

·         Not providing appropriate support or not responding to cultural, faith-based, or religious requirements, and being culturally insensitive.



Anti-racism goes beyond thinking of racism as an issue of individual actions, and incorporates the examination of racism in systems, structures, and institutions, and includes the role of implicit biases in attitudes, behaviours, and policies (Kendi, 2019).  Anti-racist thought, practice, and approaches recognise and resolve for inequity between all racial groups, recognising White racial groups are not the norm, and inequity exists between and within different racial groups in different and disproportionate ways. Solving for long-term and root-cause issues, identifying intentionally for the most excluded, marginalised, and analysing for inequitable outcomes amongst all racial groups is central to anti-racist ways of thinking, practicing, and working.


White Privilege

The term ‘White Privilege’ was coined by a White American man, Theodore W Allen, in the 1960s during the civil rights movement and was initially used to analyse race in the labour movement.2

White Privilege refers to the benefit that people who present as White do not experience racism in the same way as people who present as Black & Racially Minoritised. There is a privilege in the ability to walk away from conversations about racism without being personally and negatively affected by the conversation or the subject matter. There is a privilege in not experiencing daily micro-aggressions and micro-incivilities for your appearance, accent, or having negative stereotypes applied that impact on how public services and other people view and treat you.

The privilege of being unaffected by racism and the lack of lived experience of racism and inequity, can lead to obliviousness. This lack of awareness and understanding can produce unintentional harm and systems, policies and procedures that create inequity for some over others. Being actively anti-racist as a council means identifying the how White Privilege manifests in the delivery of our services and in the culture of our workplace. 

We acknowledge that those who present as White may experience other forms of racism. The idea of White Privilege does not dismiss the varying impacts of racism on White communities and people. Nor does it dismiss the complex socio-economic and class-based discrimination experienced by residents of all ethnicities. Having White Privilege does not disregard or demean the discrimination or inequality that people presenting as White may experience due to their heritage, faith, culture, socio-economic circumstance. It means that their life is not made harder or as hard due to the colour of their skin.


Migratised Communities

It is important for us to recognise the impact of language in perpetuating ‘otherness’, inequity, and exclusion for those who do not belong to White UK English heritage and are audibly and visibly different, even within White-UK and White non-UK heritage communities.


The term Migratised and language of “Migratisation” was developed by Dr. Alyosxa Tudor in their article “Cross-fading of Racialisation and Migratisation: The postcolonial turn in Western European gender and migration studies”.


They “describe not only the condition of being on the move but also names and shames the border, barriers and attitudes that turn people into migrants and others”. It “considers how migrants are treated based on their existence as people on the move. It describes how some people can be assumed to be migrants, and constructed as such, without having been on the move themselves, it also highlights the conditionality of belonging of diasporic communities, especially for those who are racialised as Non-White”.


Shifting language toward “migratisation” and ‘people with lived experience of the asylum process’ is key because it specifies how migrants are treated beyond merely naming them as people on the move with some defined legal or non-legal status’. 




Our work on anti-racism is closely linked with accessibility and disability-inclusion principles to ensure we understand differential access requirements and build better solutions as a council to serve all our diverse residents. Intersectionality is a concept introduced and developed by Kimberley Crenshaw. It means to recognise the complexity of the many parts and identities of each person that co-exist and impact one another, particularly when experiencing inequity and exclusion, and the more diverse lived experiences a person has.


Intersectionality must be acknowledged in all equalities work because of the regular discrimination Black & Racially Minoritised people face for their ethnicity combined with their gender, faith, disability, sexuality, accent, appearance – their physical appearance and their choice of dress. Many of our residents identify intersectionally and will be impacted in varying ways by racism due to their faith, ethnicity, nationality, and culture. This is especially true for members of our community including but not limited to the Jewish Community, Traveller Community and Asylum Seekers and Refugees.


We understand that a council policy may have different impacts for different people depending on the unique combination of protected characteristics. It is important therefore that as a council and a city, our anti-racism work speak to the disability, accessibility, gender and more, to include migratised communities and those who appear or present to be outsiders to the United Kingdom or are in socio-economically and other under-represented groups, making them more vulnerable to experiencing inequity and exclusion when also disabled, gender-diverse, neuro-diverse, or different in various ways.


















Appendix 4


Community Advisory Group (CAG)

The anti-racism Community Advisory Group (CAG) provides community accountability for the council's anti racism work. Facilitated by an external convenor with lived experience of racism, the group is made up of Black & Racially Minoritised members of the community that are stakeholders in the community and voluntary sector.  The group meets bimonthly and council services are selected by the group to share their progress on their anti-racism work. The CAG has been influential in the development of this anti-racism strategy, and we are very grateful for their support, commitment, and resilience.

The councils co-chair for Tourism, Equality, Communities and Culture Committee and Lead member for Equality is a standing invitee. Council officers that attend include the Executive Director for Housing, Neighbourhoods, and Communities, Head of Communities, Equality and Third Sector Service, Equality, Diversity & Inclusion Manager and Anti-Racism Lead.



Appendix 5


Council values and becoming an anti-racist organisation


Our core values connect strongly with our commitment to embed anti-racism into the way the council works and takes decisions. Our values shape the way that council staff review their own conduct and the performance of others. Each member of staff has a Performance and Development Plan which sets out their current work objectives so that they, their manager, and the organisation are clear on what they are being asked to achieve and that they have the relevant training and support not only to do this, but also to develop as people and professionals. We believe strongly in a motivated workforce that feels ownership for their individual roles and wider aims of our organisation.

Below are our core values with a description of how they connect to prioritising anti-racism in every aspect of our work as your council.

Collaboration: Work together and contribute to the creation of helpful and successful teams and partnerships across the council and beyond.


·         Our Equalities Team, Corporate Equality Delivery Group (CEDG) and Directorate Equality Delivery Groups (DEDGs) are involved in supporting council teams and services to intentionally centre anti-racism at the heart of their work. We engage with our local Black & Racially Minoritised communities to learn from and platform diverse voices and experiences. We are equally committed to our own learning and cross council collaboration, ensuring we do not exhaust Black & Racially Minoritised communities with inefficient engagement


Efficiency: Work in a way that makes the best and most sustainable use of our resources, always looking at alternative ways of getting stuff done and asking, "How can I improve that?"


·         Our leadership, Directorates, and the services they represent work hard to identify and implement sustainable, innovative, best-practice informed and efficient ways to solve for inequities and racist outcomes, policies, processes, and practices.

·         Our leadership, Directorates, and the services they represent work hard to identify and implement solutions that swiftly address racism in all its forms.


Respect: Embrace diversity with kindness and consideration and recognise the value of everyone.


·         We recognise the value and strength diverse people bring to how we think, work, and deliver our services and support. We recognise that our lived experiences may differ, particularly where our racial, national, ethnic heritages, faith, sexuality, and protected characteristics differ. We commit to mutually respecting, believing, and hearing different lived experiences, understanding the different impact on all people who live, work, and visit the city, particularly for Black & Racially Minoritised communities.


Openness: Share and communicate with honesty about our service and ourselves, whenever appropriate.


·         Our Equalities Team is committed to providing psychologically safe and inclusive spaces where we can support council teams and services to interrogate their knowledge and understanding of racism, anti-racism, and White privilege, and explore solutions to have anti-racism as a core approach in their service. This work is supported by our leadership, directorates, Corporate Equality Delivery Group (CEDG) and Directorate Equality Delivery Groups (DEDGs) including various leads undertaking specific equalities and inclusion work across every directorate across the council.


Creativity: Have ideas that challenge the 'tried and tested', use evidence of what works, listen to feedback, and come up with different solutions.


·         We are committed to hearing and learning from creative suggestions given by our anti-racism engagement group – the Community Advisory Group. The group prioritise listening to the voices of people with lived experience of racism and hearing their ideas for change and improvement. We constructively challenge the status quo and find more effective, efficient, and innovative ways to do anti-racist learning and work within the council, for ourselves as council leadership and staff, including influencing our partners and others we work with to create positive change for Black & Racially Minoritised communities.


Customer focus:  Adopt our customer promise ‘We will make it clear how you can contact or access our services.  We will understand and get things done. We will be clear and treat you with respect.


·         We seek to meet these commitments in every interaction with our internal and external stakeholders, and to remove barriers to equal access, opportunity, representation, and voice for our Black & Racially Minoritised customers, residents, tenants, service users and people. We can access interpreting and translation services with ease, using these effectively to support diverse communities, and work intentionally to upskill staff on their use, improving customer service, delivery, and experience.



Appendix 6


Data insight informing the strategy development

This strategy uses national and local data to provide context to the antiracism work we are undertaking. The data is not being used to establish direct causal connections between ethnicity and outcome. It can be misleading to think of ethnicity as the main reason or explanation for any differences or disproportionality. There will be many different intersecting factors that contribute to people who experience racism having greater or lesser access to services, resources, or information. For example, socio economic status, cultural or religious differences, social mobility, age, or lack of efficacy in service delivery will all contribute to any differences in the data. Furthermore, we recognise that there is vast diversity within Racially Minoritised communities. It is difficult to draw general conclusions based on ethnicity alone. This strategy will use the data in conjunction with community engagement and anti-racism best practice to complement the reasoning for our anti-racism intentions.

Population Data by Ethnicity – Census 2021

·         More than a quarter of residents, 26% are ‘BME’ (non-White UK/British from Black and Minoritised Ethnic (‘BME’) groups). Higher than seen in the South-East (21%) but similar what is found in England (27%). 

·         Despite the overall number of residents only increasing by 1% since the last Census. The number of ‘BME’ residents has increased by over a third (35%)

·         7.5% of ‘BME’ residents are Black. Black residents make up 2% of all residents on the city. This is lower than the national Black population of 4.2%. The number of Black residents in Brighton & Hove has increased by 30%

·         18% of ‘'BME'’ residents are Asian. Asian residents make up one in twenty of all residents in the city (4.8%). This is lower than the national Asian population of 9.6%. The number of Asian residents has increased by 17%.

·         18% of 'BME' residents are of ‘mixed ethnicity.’ Residents of ‘mixed ethnicity’ make up one in twenty of all residents (4.8%). The number of residents of mixed ethnicity has increased by 2,820 people (27%)

·         4.2% of 'BME' residents in the city are Arab. Arab residents make up 1.1% of all residents in the city. This is higher than national Arab population of 0.6% The number of Arab residents has increased by 42%.

·         More than a third of 'BME' residents are other White (37%). Other White residents make up nearly one in ten of all residents (9.7%). The number of other White residents has increased by 37%.


Key Data: Local


·         20% of Brighton & Hove residents were born outside of the UK, significantly higher than the Southeast proportion of 16%

·         For nearly one in ten residents (24,579 people, 9.1%) English is not their preferred language.  Higher than the South-East (7.2%) but similar to England (9.2%).

·         In more than one in twenty city households (7,817, 6.4%) no adult speaks English as a main or preferred language.

·         For a further 6,603 households (5.4%) not all adults have English as their preferred or first language.

·         Over a quarter of multi-person household in the city (21,775, 27%) are ‘multi-ethnic' households. This is significantly higher than seen in the South-East (16%) and England (15%)

·         Highest proportion of ‘multi-ethnic' households in England (upper tier local authorities), outside of London

·         The percentage of 'BME' and White Other staff within the council workforce continues to increase (data as at 30th September 2022). Compared with 31 December 2021, we have seen 0.6% and 0.4% increases in their workforce profiles respectively. This means 9.2% of the workforce are from 'BME' 257 backgrounds, compared with a target of 9.1%. For White Other staff the figure is 8.4%, compared with a target of 8.8%

·         'BME' populations age profile is younger than the white British population. Whilst 22% of all Brighton & Hove residents are 19 years old or under, 24% of all 'BME' residents are 19 and under, including 50% of all residents identifying as having Multiple Ethnicity or as ‘Mixed Heritage’. This is subject to new census data being released in 2023.

·         Only 8.1% of residents aged over 65 were from 'BME' backgrounds in the 2011 census. Of that 8.1%, 44% identified as male and 56% identified as female. There is not enough substantial qualitative data for those who identify a Trans, Non-Binary, or gender non-conforming. This is subject to new census data being released in 2023.

·         As of 2013/14 8% of people aged 65 or over receiving Adult Social care services provided or commissioned by the council were from 'BME' communities. This is an increase on the 7% from 'BME' Communities in 2011/12[5]

·         10% of those aged 65 or over receiving Adult Social Care for dementia on 2013/14 were from 'BME' backgrounds, an over-representation compared to the cities 'BME' population

·         Babies from the Black ethnic group have the highest rates of stillbirths and infant deaths, with babies from the Asian ethnic group consistently the second highest[6]. Later in life, those of south Asian heritage have higher levels of stroke, coronary heart disease and diabetes[7]; those who identify as Black African, Caribbean, and Black British typically have higher levels of hypertension and stroke.[8] 

·         People from Black and Minority Ethnic groups living in the UK are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health problem; be admitted to hospital with a mental health problem and experience a poor outcome from treatment[9].  When looking at the health of the Gypsy, Roma, Traveller community, data shows that their health is much poorer than the general population. Life expectancy is generally 15-25 years less and infant mortality rates are three times higher

·         National data demonstrated the disproportionate impact of the pandemic on Black & Racially Minoritised communities and local data and engagement with residents yielded feedback like that suggested by the national data.[10]

·         Local data suggests that there is a huge disparity in unemployment rates and economic activity amongst Black & Racially Minoritised communities in relation to White British residents. At the time of the 2011 census, Black African residents had an unemployment rate of 18.7%[11] and Gypsy or Irish traveller communities had an unemployment rate of 15.3%[12] - these are over twice the city average of 7.3%[13]. This is subject to new census data being released in 2023.

·         According to 2018 City Tracker[14] data, only 48% of ‘'BME'’ residents feel safe after dark in their local area. This drops to 35% of ‘'BME'’ residents feeling very safe after dark in the city centre.

·          In the period 2021-22, there were 639 racist crimes and incidents in Brighton & Hove. Over this same period there were 55 religiously motivated crimes and incidents.



Community Insight:


2021 Census raw data:



Appendix 7



·         Websites:

o   Action to become an anti-racist council (

o   Alone, Together (

o   Anti-Racism Education Strategy

o   Becoming an anti-racist city (

o   Being a fair and inclusive council (

o   Births and infant mortality by ethnicity in England and Wales - Office for National Statistics (

o   Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Brighton & Hove – summary report (

o   Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Brighton & Hove (

o (n.d.). Local Insight. [online] Available at:

o   Council's social care team turn anti-racist pledge into action (

o   How can procurement lead on equality, diversity and inclusion? - Supply Management (

o   How to source diverse suppliers | CIPD

o (2021). [online] Available at:

o   Office for National Statistics (2019). Census - Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at:

o   Race in the workplace: The McGregor-Smith Review - GOV.UK (

o   What works in diversity: turning evidence into practice | CIPD News

o   Workforce Race Equality Standards Action Plan (WRES) (


·         Books:

o   Ahmed, S. (2012). On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham, N.C.; London: Duke University Press.

o   Akala (2018). Natives. Two Roads.

o   Alexander, M. (2020). The New Jim Crow. The New Press.

o   Anderson, C. (2020). White rage: the unspoken truth of our racial divide. London: Bloomsbury.

o   Binna Kandola (2018). RACISM AT WORK: the danger of indifference. Pearn Kandola Publishing.

o   ‌Daniels, S. (2022). The Anti-Racist Organization. John Wiley & Sons.

o   DiAngelo, R. and Dyson, M.E. (2018). White fragility: why it’s so hard for White people to talk about racism. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press.

o   Kendi, I.X. (2023). How to Be an Antiracist. One World.

o   Olusoga, D. (2016). Black and British. London: Macmillan.

o   Reni Eddo-Lodge (2020). Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race. Bloomsbury Publishing.

o   Saad, L.F. (2020). Me and White Supremacy. Sourcebooks, Inc.

o   Sathnam Sanghera (2021). Empireland how imperialism has shaped modern Britain. London Viking.

o   Steele, C. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us and what we can do. New York Norton.

o   ‌Uju Asika (2021). Bringing Up Race. Sourcebooks, Inc.


Appendix 8


Publication and Contact Information


This Anti-racism Strategy is available in various accessible formats, including Easy Read, British Sign Language (BSL) translation, Braille and among others, upon request in other languages.


For the strategy in another format or any questions about the strategy please contact the council’s Equality Team by:


Telephone: 01273 291952

Text: 078 2511 3908


[1] Link to needs assessment can be found online at Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Brighton & Hove – summary report (

[2] Created by Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors and Opal Tometi in 2014, it originated as a movement against police brutality and Racially motivated violence against Black people. It is now a global movement.

[3] Toni Morrison quotes in Toni Morrison's Most Powerful Quotes On Racism | HuffPost UK Black Voices (

[4] See Britannica’s definition of ‘Race’ in Race | Definition, Ideologies, Constructions, & Facts | Britannica

[5] RAP-‘Referrals, Assessments & Packages of care’ Statutory return 2013-14

[6] Births and infant mortality by ethnicity in England and Wales - Office for National Statistics (



[9] 38 Fitzpatrick R, Kumar S, Nkansa-Dwamena O, Thorne L. Ethnic inequalities in mental health: promoting lasting positive change 2014. Taken from Public Health England. Mental health and wellbeing JSNA toolkit: Mental health: population factors  

[10] TDC Community Voices report

[11] Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Brighton & Hove (

[12] Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Brighton & Hove (

[13] Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Brighton & Hove (

[14] Brighton & Hove Connected commissioned Infocorp Ltd to carry out the 2018 annual City Tracker Survey of city residents. The survey covers Brighton & Hove’s adult population aged 18+. The objective of the City Tracker Survey is to find out what residents think of Brighton & Hove as a place to live. This includes tracking key performance indicator (KPI) monitoring of essential city services